№ 1 (11) 2016

по Материалам Международной конференции «Экологическая физиология водных фототрофов: распространение, запасы, химический состав и использование»
IV Сабининские чтения

29 ноября - 29 декабря 2015 г.

Фитоперифитон и показатели среды в реках Кольского полуострова, Русский Арктический Север 

Phytoperiphyton and environmental variables in the rivers of the Kola Peninsula, Russian Arctic North


Денисов Д.Б.1, Баринова С.С.2

Dmitry B. Denisov1, Sophia S. Barinova2


1Институт проблем промышленной экологии Севера КНЦ РАН (г. Апатиты, Россия)
2Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa (Израиль)


УДК 582.0


В 12 Арктических реках, расположенных в различных районах Кольского полуострова и прилегающих арктических территорий из 53 образцов перифитона, собранных в период 2007-2010гг., было выявлено 149 видов и разновидностей водорослей и цианобактерий из 7 таксономических отделов. Показатели среды также приводятся.

Ключевые слова: Арктические озера; перифитон; качество воды; Кольский полуостров; Россия.



The Russian Arctic region is represent by stressed environment with long winters, constant low temperatures, extremes of irradiance and short vegetation period. That because is very important for study of algal communities in stressed environment. The algal diversity research in the Arctic region of European Russia are less advanced than in Canada (Michelutti et al., 2003), Greenland (Cremer et al., 2005a), and Asian Arctic (Cremer et al., 2005b; Kharitonov, 1993, 2010). At this initial stage we (Barinova, Stenina 2013; Denisov, 2007, 2008a,b; Denisov, Kashulin, 2007; Kashulin et al., 2008), our Russian (Stenina, Patova, 2000; Stenina 2005a,b,c, 2009) and Finnish (Ylikörkkö et al., 2015) colleagues are earlier focused on the European Russia Arctic lakes diatom diversity of which was formed under strong climatic as well as variable anthropogenic impacts. Nevertheless, the riverine communities and water quality can be very important study for monitoring and assessment of anthropogenic impacts in the Arctic sensitive environment.

Our recent studies is more consistently related to basis for bio-indication of the rivers ecological status, pollution impacts, and self-purification capacities, assessed according to the European Water Framework Directive (The Directive 2000) that emphasizes the importance of algal communities as the most informative component of the large rivers ecosystem (Reynolds & Descy 1996).

The present work was aimed at inventory of algal diversity in the Kola Peninsula rivers and its environmental variables. We intended to reveal trends of algal diversity under high-latitude climatic impacts which combined with anthropogenic impact on the some river basins.

Study area

Our study area (Figure 1) is combined natural territories and falling under strong anthropogenic impact. Freshwater ecosystems of the Kola Peninsula and adjacent territories of Fennoscandia in the Murmansk region are characterized by specificity of the conditions of water quality formation, due to the peculiarities of the complex landscape and geographical factors and the dynamics of the climate system. In Figure 1 we are outlined the major river basins in the peninsula and here can be seen where each river is placed. Typical for these rivers are natural origin, ultrafresh, ultraoligotrophic with high transparency at the water sources and industrially impacted at its lower parts (Kashulin et al., 2008). Over the past 70-100 years of intensive industrial development and the development of social and transport infrastructure, water ecosystems of the Kola Subarctic undergone significant changes in the level of structural and functional organization (Kashulin et al., 2008). The most largest and important lake-river systems in the Kola Peninsula are the Imandra Lake that now is under impact of Kola Nuclear Station, industrial complexes OJSC «Apatite» and «Severonickel Combine» (Norilsk Nickel) of Kola Mining-Metallurgical Company as well as the Pasvik River system that is under impact of the «Kovdorsky Mining and Processing Plant», OJSC, «Kovdorslyuda», Pechenganikel, and Olenegorsky Mining and Processing Plant. Special attention was paid to aquatic ecosystems are experiencing long-term human impact, including persistent objects integrated to the rivers environmental monitoring.



Fig. 1. Sampling sites of 12 studied river basins on the map of the Kola Peninsula and adjusted Murmansk region. White points – numbers of river basins as in Appendix 1. Blue lines – our outlining of catchment basins; toned – ecoregions (according Kalabin et al., 1999).


Sampling and laboratory studies

We studied 53 samples of periphyton collected in 2007-2010 from 12 rivers placed in different regions of the Kola Peninsula and Murmansk region. Periphyton samples were taken from few sampling stations over each river with scratching from the boulder surface and partly fixed in 4% neutral formaldehyde solution. Non fixed and fixed samples were transported to the lab in the ice box, and investigated in soft and permanent slides under microscopes «Leitz Biomed», Motic BA 300 and «Carl Zeiss Jena NU 2E» at 400-1000x with the help of international guides (Dedussenko-Schegoleva, Hollerbach, 1962; Hollerbach et al., 1953; Komárek, Anagnostidis, 2001; 2005; Komarenko, Vasilieva, 1978; Krammer, Lange-Bertalot, 1986; 1988; 1991а; 1991b; Moshkova, Hollerbach, 1986; Proshkina-Lavrenko, 1974; Tikkanen, 1986) and current taxonomic literature. The list of identified species was arranged alphabetically according to modern taxonomy cited in Guiry and Guiry (2015).

Water samples for hydrochemistry were taken in parallel with algal samples and analyzed in the Analytical Laboratory of the Institute of Ecology, Kola Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Science with standard methods (Kashulin et al., 2008; Standard method…, 1975; Strickland, Parsons, 1972).

The ecological characteristics of the revealed species were obtained from the database compiled for freshwater algae from multiple analyses of algal biodiversity (Barinova et al., 2006) with additions (Bahls et al., 1984; Dell'Uomo, Torrisi, 2011; Kharitonov, 2010; Odland, Norway, 2005; Pankow, 1976; Salden, 1978; Soininen et al., 2004; Sreenivasa, Duthie, 1973; Ter Braak, Van Dam, 1989; Van Dam et al., 1994; Van de Vijver et al., 2004; Wåhlin, 1970; Whitmore, 1989) according to substrate preference, temperature, streaming and oxygenation, pH, salinity, organic enrichments, N-uptake metabolism, and trophic states.

Results and discussion


As can be seen in Appendix 1 (lakes are sorted by its latitude from south to north), the Kola Peninsula Arctic rivers are shallow with depth from 0,1 to 2,5 m, and catchment area from 0.22 (Zhelezny stream) to 507 km2 (Tsaga River). The largest river Tsaga and Belaya are placed in the south-west and central part of peninsula. Studied rivers are of low temperature, salinity and mostly circumneutral pH. The river water active protons concentration (pH) were below 7.0 in the northern and southern rivers catchment basins of which are placed close to industrial pollution areas (Figure 1). In contrary, the rivers in central part of peninsula have pH above 8.0 such as Yuksporrjok River and Zhelezny stream. Its water is rather enriched by nutrients in contrary to southernmost and northernmost rivers (Appendix 1), but silica is presents. Nutrients are increased in the river sites which are placed near the Mining and Processing Plants and correlated with pH increasing.


We found 149 species and infraspecies of algae and cyanobacteria from 7 taxonomic divisions in 12 Arctic rivers of the Kola Peninsula (Appendix 2). Bacillariophyta was strongly prevailed, with followed Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria (Appendix 3). Species richness fluctuated from 7 species in the southernmost Tsaga River to 51 in the Saamka River (including inflows) placed in the western part of the Kola Peninsula. Taxonomic composition in the riverine communities fluctuated from on behalf contain of diatom algae and cyanobacteria in the southern basins of peninsula till enriched by diatoms up to 80% in the northern rivers (basins 6-12). Only the Zhemchuzhnaya River community was represented by diatoms. Over the diatoms, up to 20-40% of cyanobacteria species was found in the rivers of southern and central part of peninsula – Tsaga, Belaya, Yuksporrjok, Saamka, and Zhelezny stream. Despite the fact that algae from other taxonomic divisions were diverse, they all are representing not more than 15% of the studied riverine communities. Remarkably, the species richness as a whole is different on the northern and southern part of peninsula. The most species rich communities were found in the rivers Belaya and Saamka, catchment basins of which are close related with major pollution sources (Figure 1).


Our results show that high algal diversity over the broad range of environmental variables evidenced that the algal species being well adapted to the Arctic rivers habitats are survived in the natural and anthropogenic environment of the Russian European Arctic.


This work has been partly funded by the Israel Ministry of Absorption.


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Статья поступила в редакцию 19.10.2015


Phytoperiphyton and environmental variables in the rivers of the Kola Peninsula, Russian Arctic North

Dmitry B. Denisov, Sophia S. Barinova

Altogether  149 species and infraspecies of algae and cyanobacteria from 7 taxonomic divisions has been revealed in 53 samples of periphyton collected in 2007-2010 from 12 rivers placed in different regions of the Kola Peninsula and adjusted territories of Russian Arctic. Environmental variables are also given.

Key words: Arctic rivers; Periphyton; Water quality; Kola Peninsula; Russia.



Об авторах

Денисов Дмитрий Борисович - Denisov Dmitry B. 

кандидат биологических наук
Институт проблем промышленной экологии Севера КНЦ РАН, г. Апатиты, Мурманская область, Россия (INEP KSC RAS, Apatity, Murmansk region, Russia)

Баринова София Степановна - Barinova Sophia S.

кандидат биологических наук
Институт эволюции Хайфского университета, г. Хайфа, Израиль (Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel)

Корреспондентский адрес: Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel. Tel: +972-4-824-9799, факс: +972-4-828-8235



Денисов Д.Б., Баринова С.С. Фитоперифитон и показатели среды в реках Кольского полуострова, Русский Арктический Север // Вопросы современной альгологии. 2016. № 1 (11). URL: http://algology.ru/957

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