№ 2 (9) 2015

Разнообразие водорослей и показателей среды в Арктических озерах Кольского полуострова, Русский Север 

Algal diversity and ecological variables in the Arctic lakes of the Kola Peninsula, Russian North


Денисов Д.Б.1, Баринова С.С.2

Dmitry B. Denisov, Sophia S. Barinova


1Институт проблем промышленной экологии Севера КНЦ РАН (г. Апатиты, Россия)
2Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa (Израиль)


УДК 582.0


В 48 Арктических озерах, расположенных в различных районах Кольского полуострова из 166 образцов фитопланктона и 82 образцов перифитона, собранных в период 2007-2010 гг., было выявлено 348 видов и разновидностей водорослей и цианобактерий из 7 таксономических отделов. Показатели среды также приводятся.

Ключевые слова: Арктические озера; разнообразие водорослей; качество воды; Кольский полуостров; Россия.



The Arctic region is very important for its diversity study because represent stressed environment with long winters, constant low temperatures, extremes of irradiance and short vegetation periods. The algal diversity research in the Arctic region of European Russia are less advanced than in Canada (Michelutti et al., 2003), Greenland (Cremer et al., 2005a), and Asian Arctic (Cremer et al., 2005b; Kharitonov, 1993, 2010). At this initial stage we focused on diatom diversity of the European Russia Arctic lakes (Barinova, Stenina, 2013; Denisov, 2007, 2008a,b; Denisov, Kashulin, 2007; Kashulin et al., 2008; Stenina, Patova, 2000; Stenina, 2005a,b,c, 2009; Ylikörkkö et al., 2015) formed under strong climatic as well as variable anthropogenic impacts.

The present work was aimed at inventory of algal diversity in the Kola Peninsula lakes and its environmental variables. We intended to reveal trends of algal diversity under high-latitude climatic impacts which combined with anthropogenic impact.

Study area

Our study area (Fig. 1) is combined natural territories and falling under strong anthropogenic impact. Freshwater ecosystems of the Kola Peninsula and adjacent territories of Fennoscandia in the Murmansk region are characterized by specificity of the conditions of water quality formation, due to the peculiarities of the complex landscape and geographical factors and the dynamics of the climate system. In Figure 1 we are outlined the major river basins in the peninsula and here can be seen where each lake placed. Typical for region lakes are natural origin, ultrafresh, ultraoligotrophic with high transparency and low water primary production (Kashulin et al., 2008). Over the past 70-100 years of intensive industrial development and the development of social and transport infrastructure, water ecosystems of the Kola Subarctic undergone significant changes in the level of structural and functional organization (Kashulin et al., 2008). The most largest and important lake-river systems in the Kola Peninsula are the Imandra Lake that now is under impact of Kola Nuclear Station, industrial complexes OJSC «Apatite» and «Severonickel Combine» (Norilsk Nickel) of Kola Mining-Metallurgical Company as well as the Pasvik system that is under impact of the «Kovdorsky Mining and Processing Plant», OJSC, «Kovdorslyuda», Pechenganikel, and Olenegorsky Mining and Processing Plant. Special attention was paid to aquatic ecosystems are experiencing long-term human impact, including persistent objects integrated environmental monitoring.



Fig. 1. Sampling site of 48 studied lakes on the map of the Kola Peninsula.
White points – numbers of lakes as in Appendix 1. Blue lines – our outlining of catchment basins; toned – ecoregions (according Kalabin et al., 1999).


Sampling and laboratory studies

We studied 166 samples of phytoplankton and 82 samples of periphyton collected in 2007-2010 from 48 lakes placed in different regions of the Kola Peninsula and adjacent territories of Fennoscandia in the Murmansk region. Plankton samples were obtained in the summer period by using Ruttner 2.2 liter volume bathometer and Judy net with gas 75 (25 mesh) from the 0,5 m horizon and fixed in 4% formaldehyde. Periphyton samples were taken with scratching from the boulder surface. Non fixed and fixed samples were investigated in soft and permanent slides as well as in the Nageotte chamber with microscopes «Leitz Biomed», Motic BA 300 and «Carl Zeiss Jena NU 2E» at 400-1000x with the help of international guides (Dedussenko-Schegoleva, Hollerbach, 1962; Hollerbach et al., 1953; Komárek, Anagnostidis, 2001, 2005; Komarenko, Vasilieva, 1978; Krammer, Lange-Bertalot, 1986, 1988, 1991а,b; Matvienko, 1954; Moshkova, Hollerbach, 1986; Proshkina-Lavrenko, 1974; Tikkanen, 1986) and current taxonomic literature. The list of identified species was arranged alphabetically according to modern taxonomy cited in Guiry and Guiry (2015).

Water samples for hydrochemistry were taken in parallel with algal samples and analyzed in the Analytical Laboratory of the Institute of Ecology, Kola Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Science with standard methods (Kashulin et al., 2008; Standard method…, 1975; Strickland, Parsons, 1972).

The ecological characteristics of the revealed species were obtained from the database compiled for freshwater algae from multiple analyses of algal biodiversity (Barinova et al., 2006) with additions (Bahls et al., 1984; Dell'Uomo, Torrisi, 2011; Kharitonov, 2010; Odland, Norway, 2005; Pankow, 1976; Salden, 1978; Soininen et al., 2004; Sreenivasa, Duthie, 1973; Ter Braak, Van Dam, 1989; Van Dam et al., 1994; Van de Vijver et al., 2004; Wåhlin, 1970; Whitmore, 1989) according to substrate preference, temperature, streaming and oxygenation, pH, salinity, organic enrichments, N-uptake metabolism, and trophic states.


Results and discussion


As can be seen in Appendix 1 (lakes are sorted by its latitude from south to north), the Kola Peninsula Arctic lakes have large amplitude of the depth from 0,1 to 37 m, lake surface from 0,11 to 66 km2, and catchment area from 0,2 to 3000 km2. The largest lakes are placed in the south-west and central part of peninsula. Studied lakes are of low temperature, salinity and usually circumneutral pH. Its water is low enriched by nutrients excluded the lakes Kovdor, Bolshoy Vudjavr, Verkhnee Staroe and Kahosero, but silica is rather presents. Nutrients are increased in the lakes which are placed near the Mining and Processing Plants and correlated with pH increasing. Kola Peninsula is different by morphometric diversity of lakes is from other Arctic areas like in Russian North (Barinova, Stenina 2013; Duff et al., 1999, Kharitonov, 2010) and the Central Canada (Rühland et al., 2003). The most of the studied lakes have high flowage.


Altogether we found 348 species and infraspecific taxa of algae and cyanobacteria from 7 taxonomic divisions in 48 Arctic lakes in the Kola Peninsula (Appendix 2, Appendix 3). Bacillariophyta was prevailed, with followed Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria (Appendix 4). Species richness fluctuated from 7 species in the Pasvik Lake, Tyerebukta to 63 in the Dolgoe Lake. Taxonomic composition in the lakes fluctuated from on behalf contain of green and charophyte algae in the northern and southern parts of peninsula till enriched by dinoflagellates and euglenoids in the central part (lakes 16-42). Two waterbodies are enriched by cyanobacteria: the Soltajarvi Lake and Well 23. In two largest lakes green algae were diverse: Lake Bolshoy Vudjavr and Lake Imandra. Remarkably, the species richness as a whole is different on the northern and southern part of peninsula from the central part lakes, where placed major pollution sources.


Our results show that high algal diversity over the broad range of environmental variables and morphometry is evidence for the algal species being well adapted to the Arctic lakes habitats in the natural and anthropogenic environment of the Russian European Arctic.


This work has been partly funded by the Israel Ministry of Absorption.


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Статья поступила в редакцию 6.09.2015.


Algal diversity and ecological variables in the Arctic lakes of the Kola Peninsula, Russian North

Dmitry B. Denisov, Sophia S. Barinova

Altogether 348 species and infraspecific taxa of algae and cyanobacteria from 7 taxonomic divisions has been revealed in 166 samples of phytoplankton and 82 samples of periphyton collected in 2007-2010 from 48 lakes placed in different regions of the Kola Peninsula Arctic lakes. Environmental variables are also given.

Key words: Arctic lakes; Algal Diversity; Water quality; Kola Peninsula; Russia.


Об авторах

Денисов Дмитрий Борисович - Denisov Dmitry B.

кандидат биологических наук
Институт проблем промышленной экологии Севера КНЦ РАН, г. Апатиты, Мурманская область, Россия (INEP KSC RAS, Apatity, Murmansk region, Russia)

Баринова София Степановна - Barinova Sophia S.

кандидат биологических наук
Институт эволюции Хайфского университета, г. Хайфа, Израиль (Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel)

Корреспондентский адрес: Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel. Tel: +972-4-824-9799, факс: +972-4-828-8235



Денисов Д.Б., Баринова С.С.  Разнообразие водорослей и показателей среды в Арктических озерах Кольского полуострова, Русский Север // Вопросы современной альгологии. 2015. № 2 (9). URL: http://algology.ru/742

Denisov D.B., Barinova S.S. Algal diversity and ecological variables in the Arctic lakes of the Kola Peninsula, Russian North // Issues of modern algology. 2015. № 2 (9). URL: http://algology.ru/742


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